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Abstract


Reflection of Kıblenüma in Divan Poetry as a Material Culture Element
Literary works are important preservers and transmitters of the social life, traditions and customs, mores, beliefs, material and immaterial culture of the society they belong to. We see that the literary works that had been created within the framework of the Classical Turkish Literature were not separate from real life, and on the contrary, they mirrored different aspects of social life through a wide window. Because it is possible to trace the material and immaterial culture regarding the life of the individual and the society in the works that had been created in a wide timeframe and geography. It is possible to find many elements of material culture especially in the verses of Divan poets which had been part of the daily life in past periods but forgotten, not used and transformed into different forms today. One such element that can be considered within this context is 'kıblenüma'. This tool, which was used to determine the direction of Qibla in past periods and stopped being used in the 19th century, can only be seen in museums and some auctions today. Kıblenüma, which was part of the daily life in the periods it was used, had found its place in the divans of the poets as a subject of various metaphors and imagery in almost every period from the 15th century to the 20th century. This study first discusses the necessity of directing oneself to Qibla and therefore the need for the kıblenümas and refers to the studies that discussed these tools. Afterwards, it discusses the meaning of the word 'kıblenüma', and the properties and operating principles of these tools. Finally, and above all, the study tries to identify how the kıblenümas were reflected in the Divan poetry. For this, the meanings in which the said tool was used in poetry, the properties and the metaphors and imagery that the tool was used as a subject are examined over sample verses.

Keywords
Divan poetry, material culture, Kaaba, Qibla, kıblenüma.



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